FASTER THAN LIGHT TACHYON CHALLENGE
This page is under construction (6/26/2012)
This article is being written in June, 2012 as a challenge to “my know it all” son, David A. Roffman. David graduated from Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University at the age of 18 with a B.S. in space physics. He will start his physics PhD studies at the University of Florida in August, 2012. David is a skeptical young man, who (like most physicists today) hasn’t yet seen any convincing evidence of the theoretical faster-than light tachyons that I mentioned when I discussed the Bible Code on the History Channel (see Part 3 of this link).
Nor, despite his own verification of the math that I use for statistical analyses of Torah Code matrices, has David yet accepted the reality of the Torah Code. So, in this article, I will show what happens when the axis term TACHYON TIME is combined with the shortest transliteration of our family’s last name, ROFFMAN. This doesn’t mean that either the Torah Code or tachyons are currently proven. Rather, the article is a challenge my son to find out if tachyons are indeed part of the solution for what he seeks – the physical and mathematical rules for Creation. Should he indeed find the answer one day, then this article will serve as a reminder that God made tachyons and He foresaw their discovery first. Note: A September 2011 report about tachyonic neutrinos was proven incorrect.
Figure 1 Above: There are lots of terms on the matrix that relate to tachyons. My son, David Roffman, has yet to accept their existance, or to fully accept the Torah Code. Therefore, the matrix (with his last name on it at skip -1) is presented to him as a challenge to prove both once he finishes his PhD in physics.
On Figure 1 the axis term TACHYON TIME was chosen because it puts in sequence the hypothetical faster-than-light TACHYON particle with its alleged odd property of moving backwards in TIME. As noted by Einstein, and Tolman, special relativity implies that faster than light particles, if they existed, could be used to communicate backwards in time (see Tachyonic antitelephone article). The open text phrase classically translated as AND IN THE PROCESS OF TIME from Genesis 4:3 matches up well (in 176-letter box) with the axis term. The term is more accurately translated as IT CAME TO PASS AFTER DAYS or IT CAME TO PASS FROM END OF DAYS. Time is closely linked with Light. On the matrix FROM LIGHT is at the same skip as TACHYON TIME.
Perpendicular to and sharing a letter with FROM LIGHT is PERPENDICULAR. This key word was sought because in a 2003 paper entitled Electromagnetic String Fluid in Rolling Tachyon by Chanju Kim et al., it is stated that, “Tachyonic vacua are characterized by magnitudes of the electric and magnetic fields and the angle between them… the obtained configuration may be interpreted as a fluid consisting of string-like objects carrying electric and magnetic fields. They are stretched along one direction and the rolling tachyon move in a perpendicular direction to the strings.” Two words for STRING are on Figure 1, but they are not at a special case skip (+/- 1 or the skip of the axis term). The word PERPENDICULAR was also a key word because (as is shown in the next image) electric and magnetic fields oscillate together but perpendicular to each other and the electromagnetic wave moves in a direction perpendicular to both of the fields.
Finally, there are many ways to spell David Roffman’s last name in Hebrew. Consonants are rarely double in Hebrew. Vowels are often left out. The shortest transliteration of ROFFMAN is resh feh mem nun. This is shown on the 320-letter matrix. Before going further, let’s examine the Wikipedia illustration for how tachyons supposedly move:
Of the above image, Wikipedia write, “Because a tachyon always moves faster than light, we cannot see it approaching. After a tachyon has passed nearby, we would be able to see two images of it, appearing and departing in opposite directions. The black line is the shock wave of Cherenkov radiation, shown only in one moment of time. This double image effect is most prominent for an observer located directly in the path of a superluminal object (in this example a sphere, shown in grey). The right hand bluish shape is the image formed by the blue-doppler shifted light arriving at the observer—who is located at the apex of the black Cherenkov lines—from the sphere as it approaches. The left-hand reddish image is formed from red-shifted light that leaves the sphere after it passes the observer. Because the object arrives before the light, the observer sees nothing until the sphere starts to pass the observer, after which the image-as-seen-by-the-observer splits into two—one of the arriving sphere (to the right) and one of the departing sphere (to the left).”
Of course, the reference to Doppler shift means that we are discussing waves. On the figure 1 matrix, the key word WAVES is found ar skip +1.
STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF FIGURE 1. As per my standard protocol, no statistical significance is assigned to the axis term, here TACHYON TIME at its only ELS in the Torah Code. By far, the most significant term found was my own family name, ROFFMAN at skip -1. However, while I hope this alludes to my son's future research in physics, it could just as easily refer to the fact that I mentioned signals (tachyons) that may go into the past when asked a question about the source of the Torah Code on my History Channel appearance. This simplest transliteration of our family name (amounting to RFMN) does not include a first name. The name appears at a special case skip against odds of about 318 to 1. This is the only time in Torah that the name appears at an absolute skip of 1 (it occurs twice at the absolute skip of TACHYON TIME). The 4-letter spelling of the name is permissible because (in Hebrew) vowel letters are often left out of the spelling of a name.
AND IN THE PROCESS OF TIME from Genesis 4:3 is a spectacular example of how in the Torah Code we often see the theme of the axis term repeated in the crossing open text. In fact, in searching for tachyons, science is also searching for a fundamental understand of the process of time itself. However, when it comes to my calculation protocol, I don't add any value to the matrix as a result of this phrase simply because it was found a-posteriori when I read the crossing material. To count statistically I would have had to have anticipated this specific phrase being there. This, of course, does not mean that the Author of the Code didn't put it there deliberately. I think He did, but that's just my unsubstantiated opinion. The phrase FROM LIGHT is a-priori. It's there at a special case skip (that of TACHYON TIME) against odds of about 20 to 1.
PERPENDICULAR is at skip +1 against odds of about 7 to 1. There were three synonyms from my CodeFinder dictionary sought for it. The reason that there is not more significance to this term is that the spelling found has another much more common meaning - I, which occurs 143 times in Torah. Two words for STRING are on Figure 1, but they are not at a special case skip (+/- 1 or the skip of the axis term). To do any kind of serious research into tachyons requires mastery of String Theory (which my son will study in graduate school), but the one of the 4-letter synonyms for STRING was virtually certain to be on the matrix. Neither the 4-letter nor the harder to find 3-letter synonym shown were at special case skips. I take the conservative option of just using the frequencies of the easier to find term here. There were four other key words sought (and found around the axis term), but only one of them is shown on Figure 1: WAVES. It appeared at skip +1 against odds of about 73 to 1. The other terms (ELECTRICITY, MAGNETISM and FIELD are shown on Figure 2, along with THERE IS AN ION and FROM LIGHT which are both at the skip of TACHYON TIME. Overall, the terms that appeared on Figure 1 are there against odds of about 3,557,415 to 1. That's enough to keep me nagging my son about the importance of continuing the hunt for tachyons, even though this field of research is not as well funded as that searching for the also still-to-be-discovered gravitons and gravitational waves.
Two dimensional representation of gravitational waves generated by two neutron stars orbiting each other.
Figure 2 looks largely to the right and above the same axis term as that on Figure 2. On it we find MAGNETISM (at skip -1), ELECTRICITY, FIELD, and THERE IS AN ION as possible hints at what will play a role in finding tachyons. At the same skip on this matrix is TACHYON TIME, THERE IS AN ION and FROM LIGHT.
STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF FIGURE 2. Again, as per my standard protocol, no statistical significance is assigned to the axis term, here TACHYON TIME at its only ELS in the Torah Code. The most significant term on this figure is MAGNETISM which is there against odds of about 69 to 1. ION was there against odds of about 5 to 1. The odds would have been more impressive if I had guessed to look for the full 6-letter ELS of THERE IS AN ION, but I didn't. Neither ELECTRICITY nor FIELD were significant on a matrix this large, and I didn't include FROM LIGHT in the calculation because it was found previously in conjunction with Figure 1. Overall, Figure 2 existed against odds of about 474 to 1, which is far less impressive than the odds for Figure 1 (3,557,415 to 1). It appears that the only term of real statistical value on Figure 2 is MAGNETISM.
STATISTICS VS. READING THE CODE. The fact that THERE IS AN ION and FIELD were not statistically important by my statistcal protocol does not mean that they should be dismissed when attempting to read the Code in search of hints about tachyons.
In 2000 J. K. Kowalczynski of the Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Science published an article entitled A HYPOTHESIS ON PRODUCTION OF TACHYONS. In it he distinguishes between studies conducted at the level of special relativity and those done via general relativity. He states that in special relativity "pictures the tachyon does not generate any field. In general relativity the situation is different, since there we know some exact solutions of the Einstein and Einstein–Maxwell equations that describe spacetimes generated by the tachyonic sources. These spacetimes, filled with gravitational and electromagnetic fields, are bounded by tachyon shock waves which are singular in terms of these solutions." The word FIELD in Hebrew is only three letters. Such short words rarely impart great statistical value, especially when not at a special case skip. At six letters with the same skip as the axis term TACHYON TIME, THERE IS AN ION is a phrase that is more interesting. In fact, this expression can be shown in a small sub-matrix with the axis term that is only 3 columns by 21 rows (63 letters). Odds against THERE IS AN ION appearing at a special case skip in such a small matrix with TACHYON TIME were about 4,838 to 1.
Does the phrase THERE IS AN ION tell us anything about whether we should take a special or general relativity approach to the pursuit of tachyons? If Kowalczynski was right, yes. He claims, "In reality there is a thin “skin” enveloping the spacetime (space) generated by the tachyon. This “skin” is made of finite but relatively strong fields – gravitational and electromagnetic. The presence of the electromagnetic field means that our tachyon is an ionizing object." If there is an ionizing object, it follows that THERE IS AN ION (or ions) produced by it. Thus the reference to ions and fields may suggest that the best way to pursue tachyon knowledge is in conjunction with general relativity rather than special relativity.
Below: Calculation for the statistical significance of Figure 2.
WOULD GOD BE FOOLISH TO INVENT TACHYONS? In this Section we will look at standard objections to tachyons that pertain to causality paradoxes. My son (David) thinks God would be foolish to allow for the existence of superluminal (faster than light) tachyons because, if mastered by mankind, they would allow us to send signals into the past, thus letting us rewrite history (which, of cours, would include the Bible). My task, as his father (and teacher), is to strive to make sure that he understands the importance of an open mind in any scientific investigation. We must go where the data takes us, rather than just where we want the data to take us. As such, before focusing on tachyons and the specific math that I want my son to look at after he has had a graduate level course in general relativity (probably in 2013), I'm going to start the discussion with a matrix found in a book that, as an Orthodox Jew, I automatically reject as Holy Writ - the New Testament.
It should not be there, but....
It would seem obvious that there should be no ELS encoding in the King James Bible (especially the New Testament) because it is translated from other languages where words have different numbers of letters than is the case in English. As such, in ARK CODE on page 173 you will find an e-mail that I wrote to CodeFinder’s producer (Kevin Acres) on March 1, 2000 asking him to remove the New Testament from his software:
Certainly English and Greek translations of Tenach or New Testament should be labeled as being there for control purposes. A King James Version of the Bible differs quite radically from a Revised Standard Version. Ancient New Testament fragments and texts like the Sinaticus or Vaticanus manuscripts also differ significantly from the King James Version in content and meaning. Inclusion of New Testament scriptures makes the product somewhat “traif,” that is, nonkosher to Jews who have the greatest ability to use the program for research purposes.
Kevin’s response (pages 173-174) set off a firestorm. In it he noted that with his software he had detected that BARDAWIL, the lake around the suspect Ark site, appeared at an ELS only once in the New Testament. It occurred at skip -21,829. In the open text, starting at the first letter A in BARDAWIL, was AND THE ARK OF THE COVENANT. Given the fact that the Ark is cited with this name only once in the New Testament, and that the text has 739,167 letters, Kevin asserted that the odds against such a close meeting of terms were just over 10,000:1. However, with a 172-letter matrix required to show the match (8 rows by 22 columns) my spreadsheet probability technique indicates that 4,200:1 is closer to the truth – not as significant as what Kevin claims, although still interesting.
Kevin also noted that his matrix included PROOF FOR CORRECTION (to my attitude) just above ARK OF THE COVENANT, with the words SOFT and WEAR in columns above it. The word WEAR is suggestive of WARE. of course you can't find these terms without software. He did not discuss what was one line above BARDAWIL in the open text - FOOLISHNESS OF GOD, which brings us back to the question of tachyon reality.
Figure 3: A bit of foolishness encoded with Bardawil, the suspect site of the Ark of the Covenant.
Discussion of Tachyons in relativistic theory (from Wikipedia).
In special relativity, a faster than light particle would have space-like four-momentum, by contrast to ordinary particles that have time-like four-momentum. It would have imaginary mass and space-like four-momentum. Being constrained to the spacelike portion of the energy-momentum graph, it could not slow down to subluminal speeds.
In a Lorentz invariant theory, the same formulas that apply to ordinary slower-than-light particles (sometimes called "bradyons" in discussions of tachyons) must also apply to tachyons. In particular the energy-momentum relation:
E2 = p2c2 m2c4
E2 = mc2
Figure 4: The whole tachyon controversy revolves around imaginary numbers that crop up when the speed of light is exceeded. On this figure it can can seen that a 6-letter word for IMAGINARY is encoded in 112 letters with TACHYON TIME.
The following material from Wikipedia still needs to be cross checked with the Torah Code. Please note that the Code can at best give an indication of what topics are worth pursuing in conjunction with tachyon research. It can not be expected to yield correct formulas or extensive detail. Nor can it confirm existance of tachyons. That can only occur through standard scientific experimentation, most likely at CERN in Geneva.
One curious effect is that, unlike ordinary particles, the speed of a tachyon increases as its energy decreases. In particular, E approaches zero when v approaches infinity. (For ordinary bradyonic matter, E increases with increasing speed, becoming arbitrarily large as v approaches c, the speed of light). Therefore, just as bradyons are forbidden to break the light-speed barrier, so too are tachyons forbidden from slowing down to below c, because infinite energy is required to reach the barrier from either above or below.
As noted by Einstein, Tolman, and others, special relativity implies that faster than light particles, if they existed, could be used to communicate backwards in time (see Tachyonic antitelephone article).
As long ago as 1985 it was proposed by Chodos et al. that neutrinos can have a tachyonic nature. The possibility of standard model particles moving at superluminal speeds can be modelled using Lorentz invariance violating terms, for example in the Standard-Model Extension. In this framework, neutrinos experience Lorentz-violating oscillations and can travel faster than light at high energies. On the other hand, the above-mentioned proposal by Chodos et al. was strongly criticized by some researchers.
A tachyon with an electric charge would lose energy as Cherenkov radiation—just as ordinary charged particles do when they exceed the local speed of light in a medium. A charged tachyon traveling in a vacuum therefore undergoes a constant proper time acceleration and, by necessity, its worldline forms a hyperbola in space-time. However, as we have seen, reducing a tachyon's energy increases its speed, so that the single hyperbola formed is of two oppositely charged tachyons with opposite momenta (same magnitude, opposite sign) which annihilate each other when they simultaneously reach infinite speed at the same place in space. (At infinite speed the two tachyons have no energy each and finite momentum of opposite direction, so no conservation laws are violated in their mutual annihilation. The time of annihilation is frame dependent.)
Even an electrically neutral tachyon would be expected to lose energy via gravitational Cherenkov radiation, because it has a gravitational mass, and therefore increase in speed as it travels, as described above. If the tachyon interacts with any other particles, it can also Cherenkov radiate energy into those particles. Neutrinos interact with the other particles of the Standard Model, and Andrew Cohen and Sheldon Glashow recently used this to argue that the Neutrino anomaly cannot be explained by making neutrinos propagating faster that light, and must instead be due to an error in the experiment.
Causality is a fundamental principle of physics. If tachyons can transmit information faster than light, then according to relativity they violate causality, leading to logical paradoxes of the "kill your own grandfather" type. This is often illustrated with thought experiments such as the "tachyon telephone paradox" or "logically pernicious self-inhibitor."
The problem can be understood in terms of the relativity of simultaneity in special relativity, which says that different inertial reference frames will disagree on whether two events at different locations happened "at the same time" or not, and they can also disagree on the order of the two events (technically, these disagreements occur when spacetime interval between the events is 'space-like', meaning that neither event lies in the future light cone of the other).
If one of the two events represents the sending of a signal from one location and the second event represents the reception of the same signal at another location, then as long as the signal is moving at the speed of light or slower, the mathematics of simultaneity ensures that all reference frames agree that the transmission-event happened before the reception-event. However, in the case of a hypothetical signal moving faster than light, there would always be some frames in which the signal was received before it was sent, so that the signal could be said to have moved backwards in time. Because one of the two fundamental postulates of special relativity says that the laws of physics should work the same way in every inertial frame, if it is possible for signals to move backwards in time in any one frame, it must be possible in all frames. This means that if observer A sends a signal to observer B which moves faster than light in A's frame but backwards in time in B's frame, and then B sends a reply which moves faster than light in B's frame but backwards in time in A's frame, it could work out that A receives the reply before sending the original signal, challenging causality in every frame and opening the door to severe logical paradoxes. Mathematical details can be found in the tachyonic antitelephone article, and an illustration of such a scenario using spacetime diagrams can be found here.
The reinterpretation principle asserts that a tachyon sent back in time can always be reinterpreted as a tachyon traveling forward in time, because observers cannot distinguish between the emission and absorption of tachyons. The attempt to detect a tachyon from the future (and violate causality) would actually create the same tachyon and send it forward in time (which is causal).
However, this principle is not widely accepted as resolving the paradoxes. Instead, what would be required to avoid paradoxes is that unlike any known particle, tachyons do not interact in any way and can never be detected or observed, because otherwise a tachyon beam could be modulated and used to create an anti-telephone or a "logically pernicious self-inhibitor". All forms of energy are believed to interact at least gravitationally, and many authors state that superluminal propagation in Lorentz invariant theories always leads to causal paradoxes.