2021 Annual Update to MARS CORRECT: CRITIQUE OF ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA

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Obama Traitor & Iran Boehner invites Netanyahu Netanyahu Says NO to Obama Netanyahu&UN NETANYAHU Satanic Obama's enemies Anti-Semite Obama Podesta UFO Disclosure UFO Disclosure Pelosi and Netanyahu Pharaoh Obama Jordanian Pilot LT Kateasbeh Japanese beheaded Livni vs. Netanyahu Air Asia Crash 2015 DATES Jan. 1, 2015 Charlie Hebdo Communist Obama & Cuba Ferguson Verdict 1st Ferguson Riot Eric Holder Dr. Brandenburg: Nuke on Mars Moshe Feiglin - future Prime Minister? ISIS, Kassig, & Obama Executive Action & Impeachment O'NEILL SHOOTS BIN LADEN Elon Musk & Sabotage Gaza Buffer Zone Islam attacks Ottawa Kim Jong Un Comet Siding-Spring Tom Duncan Ebola to US India & Mars Ebola Obama Khorasan in Syria Alton Nolen Beheads Scotland Votes NY Nuke Nightmare Pistorius Trial Is Obama Our Enemy? Is Obama Really Hamas? Cameron vs. Obama Israel&ISIS Sotloff Beheaded Foley Beheaded Obama & Mind Reading Computer Logistics & Gaza War Joan Rivers Robin Williams Voices from the Cosmos Birthday UFO Gaza 2014 War Gaza Children Netanyahu launches Protective Edge at Gaza Contents 7: Science &Tech DEAD SEA SCROLL CODES ON TV Roffman Code Radio Show Talmud&Names Malaysia Flight 17 Al- Maliki & Defeat in Iraq Why Cantor Lost Jay Carney Repulsine Drive Potter UFO 1 Michael Sam Boko Haram Donald Sterling Malaysia 370 shot down? Ranch War? Malaysia Airlines Air France Malaysia Pilot Zaharie Shaw Ukraine, Russia & War President Snowden? Kerry Messianic Snake Salvation Death Belarus  & ObamaCare Mars Rock Mystery Pot President Roffman Mars Radio Show Justin Bieber Minimum Wage Duck Dynasty Bush in 2016 Clinton 2016 Biden in 2016 Cruz in 2016 Christie in 2016? Ryan in 2016 Rand Paul 2016 Romney 2016 Rubio 2016 Walker in 2016 Santorum 2016 Perry in 2016 Cuomo in 2016 Warren 2016 Satanic Obama Cure to Aging? Polygamy China Crisis Iran-Nuke-Deal 2014 Dates Encoded 911:Atomic-Iran Keep-your-plan? Sebelius&Obama Nelson Mandela Comet-Ison-Fear End of America Janet Yellen Kenya-Mall-Terror PUTIN OP-ED Putin, Obama, Assad & Enemies Israeli Intel vs. Assad Mubarak Freed? Mubarak Death? McCain & Morsi MAJOR HASAN Bill O'Reilly Fear  of Obama Zimmerman Free Flood on Mars Politics alters Mars weather Egypt's ElBaradei Army Suicide Mullah Omar TWA FLIGHT 800 Gay Scouting? Tornado Chasers Swiss against Kosher food ALLAH AKBAR & Mickey Mouse Jodo Arias Mars Cover-up & Obama N. Korea & Boston Where is God? Obama-Assad Bombers Found GUANTANAMO Nuke Korea Hagel&Korea Kim Jong Un Warship Sunk Korea Attack Erich VonDaniken Brain Mapping JC Stomp Mars Hoax Knives on Jets Obama&Israel New Pope Cardinal Mahoney Chavez&Obama Pope Resigns Rick Perry 2018 Mars mission crew Slideshows for Codes & Mars Asteroid 2012da14 School Shooting Fordo Iran Nuke Hit? 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Ending Muslim Terror USS Cole Reagan&UFOs 2012 & The End of Days End of Days Romney vs. Obama Obama vs. Court Hunger Games Obama Open Mic Threat Analysis Master of Fate Nuke Iran Foreign Aid Russian Veto Panetta&War Iranian Threat Atomic Threat Brewer's Finger Mitt Romney War in Hormuz WAR in 2012 EMP Attack Malcolm X & Obama Nuke Murder Concordia Sinks Israel to Moon Rocket Sabotage 2012 Republicans Atom. Holocaust Missile Base Attack Isfahan Attack Iran is Gog Rabbi Levin Reversing Time Altering Time Iran War Plan Qaddafi Death Kaddafi Execution Solyndra Loan DEFINE ELS Aldrin&Obama Obama Alias EXODUS ROUTE Pakistan&Osama Scott Jones&ET BinLaden Dead 2012 ELECTION Obama's Failure UFO Teleportation Gravitics&Time Baptism Annulled (Spiritual Custody) Define ELS-Map Alien DNA No Alien gods! Winds of Mars 2012 Supernova? Obama History Dual Citizen Obama's School Barry Soetoro 251.565 MAPS ARK HISTORY Expedition Pics ELS MAP 1 ELS Map 2 ELS MAP 3 ELS MAP 4 ELS MAP 5 ELS MAP 11 ELS MAP 12 ELS MAP 13 ELS MAP 14 ELS MAP 15 ELS MAP 16 EXPEDITIONS ETHIOPIA&ARK Tanis&the Ark Who's a Jew? Tree of Life 2012 Dates Encoded Ron Wyatt & Saudi Sinai Vatican&Hitler Vatican Rule Jack Lu: The Finance Jew Act of God & Election Ukraine Riots Rosetta Comet Landing Boston Marathon Sue Bradley OBAMACARE Shutdown Secession Vote? Obama hoax? NewYork Curse Major Hassan Hitler Youth Code Hypothesis United States Ariel Sharon Netanyahu Wins, Yair Lapid 2nd McChrystal Fired Obama Security Apartheid Israel? Obama, Muslim King of Sodom Obama Brother Sgt Bob Bales Korean Execution Mars Lies Ishmael's Birth Sochi Terror Gas Masks in Israel Korans Burned New Gaza War Gaza Jabari Hit Assad's Missiles Chris Dorner Piers Morgan: Amend Bible? Khalid Mansour 8-27-2012 GOP Convention Egypt's Election Attack via Azerbaijan Philadelphi Rt. Paul Ryan Whitney Houston Nazarene-wife Asteroid Toutatis Mayan Doomsday Holdings Book Ahmadinejad in Space Korean Rocket Coach Sandusky Armstrong&Moon Armada vs. Iran Qaddaffi son killed Romney&Bain Trump's wife abd election problems Mormon Concerns London Olympics Photos&Maps 2 Zubrin & Mars 7/28/12 Threats? Mars Stonewall Weather Goof by Mars Rover Remote Viewing Comet Lovejoy Space Shuttle Odd Shortsale Japan Tsunami Fukushima&End Meltdown Plutonium&H2O UFO Abduction Shutdown Deal WikiLeaks 1st Debate No Teleprompter Rodney King China in Space? Alien Hybrids? Bob Salas UFO MSL Sky Color Mars Sky Color Ashima/MIT&Mars End of NASA Brain-Reading Brokow vs. Gingrich Newt Gingrich Santorum&Gays Roberts Vote Ron Paul Cain Withdraws Jeb Bush 2012 Assad's Wife French Election Basketball Court Hamid Karzai Terror in France Mofaz&Netanyahu BeerSheba Attack George Soros Shalit Release Steve Jobs Social Security Barney Frank Michele Bachman Mineral Quake 9-11-2011 Lennon&Imagine Irene Flood Joplin Tornado Casey Anthony Jeff Savage Eilat Attack Renfroe UFO Mt. Sinai Pics Rocket Defense Haiti Earthquake Giffords shot Impeach Obama? Obama Loss Qaddaffi&Obama Don't ask/tell? Internet Dangers Past Presidents Jon Huntsman Bush Memoirs Bin Laden New Civil War? Rahm Emanuel Roman Rahm Mayor Rahm Antimatter Planet Kepler22b Atomic Iran Peace Talks Abu Mazen U.S. Israel Rift Israeli ship-raid Iran Chicken Iran&Suez Canal Mousavvi Top Kill Fails Pakistan Flood Halliburton&Oil Mars Monolith Potter UFO 2 End of All Life IRS Attack Chemical Ali Oil Spill Oil and Life Airline Miracle Christmas Polish President Gaza Iron Wall Life on Mars Ark to Mars UFO Onion-Drive Wormholes Martian Life Olympus Mons MSL Mars Launch H Bomb Test Supercollider ANTIGRAVITY Robson&Jupiter Onion Drive Update NIKOLA TESLA Armageddon Assad Holocaust PALIN RESIGNS 613 IRAN WAR Gaza Invasion ZECHARIAH Statistics Permutation Control Text Obama&Islam NASA Director Michael Jackson To Muslims 2008 Election Clintons Clinton Weds Nuclear War? Baal Zephon B. Zephon&Ark Implications Jeremiah&Ark Vendyl Jones In Jerusalem? Al-Awlaki Death Ark Destroyed? Titus/Rome Knights Templar Mt. Nebo/Ireland? ELIYAHU RIPS Rabbi Glazerson Hawass&Permits Religious Tests Other Texts? Mayan Calendar Google&Privacy Nasrallah Judge Elena Kagan Obama&McCain Snooping Skip Tables Term Positions RABIN MURDER 27-August-2012 Judge More (sp.) YASIR ARAFAT Hurricanes Walter K. York Romney&Netanyahu LINKS Roswell Angelic Doctor Joseph Smith Rod Rosenstein Transgender Michelle? Mars SAM Buy ARK CODE ROFFMAN BIO Weiner Scandal Spiritual Custody Contents Annulled Ch. 1 Annulled Ch. 2 Annulled Ch. 3 Annulled Ch. 4 Annulled Ch. 5 Annulled Ch. 6 Annulled Ch. 7 Annulled Ch. 8 Annulled Ch. 9 Annulled Ch10 Annulled Ch11 Annulled Ch12 Annulled Ch13 Annulled Ch14 Annulled Ch15 Annulled Ch16 Annulled Ch17 Annulled Ch18 Annulled Ch19 Annulled Ch20 Annulled Ch21 Annulled Ch22 Annulled Ch23 Epilogue Custody press coverage MSL Yr 5 Summer MSL Yr 5 SPRING MSL Yr 4-5 Winter MSL Yr 4 Fall MSL Yr 4 Summer MSL Yr 4 Spring MSL Yr 3 Winter MSL Yr 3 Fall MSL Yr 3 Summer MSL Yr 3 Spring MSL Yr 2-3 Winter Kerry Obama Iran Hoax Sept 4 2019 Radio Show Ebrahimi Update DOD-UKMOD SITREP 3 JULY 2020 R VALUES



MARCH 1, 2021: MARS CORRECT: CRITIQUE OF ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA

       Thanks for stopping by to learn the truth about Mars. Twelve years ago (in 2009) my son David A. Roffman (now with a PhD in physics) began his BS in space physics at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University in Daytona Beach, Florida. He asked me for an idea for his first technical paper. I told him that I had a hard time believing that dust devils could form so easily on Mars because the air there is almost a vacuum. It has an average pressure of 6.1 mbar which is less than a hundredth of Earth's air pressure of 1,013.25 mbar. So I suggested that he write a 10-page report called ENIGMA OF THE MARTIAN ATMOSPHERE: HIGHER THAN ADVERTISED AIR PRESSSURE. He presented a PowerPoint of the paper at the Mars Society Convention the next summer. We both continued to research this topic together for at least the next 11 years (up through today). Over that time the Report grew from 10 pages to the current length of 1,231 pages.

       During this intense 12-year audit of NASA data our doubts about air pressure were joined by data-induced reservations about winds (which we forced NASA to remove), nightly temperatures, relative humidity, ultraviolet radiation and opacity. In short wherever we looked we saw problems with their data. We spent years trying to decide if significant errors were due to incompetence or deliberate disinformation. We did uncover some major errors that looked like sloppy work. NASA Viking 1 and 2 weather reports used Pascals (Pa) for pressure when likely meant hectopascals (hPa).  This was like confusing pennies with dollars.  But after ten years it became clear that most errors were likely politically driven. The reasons for our suspicions are speculative and therefore are not included in this report, but they are discussed elsewhere on this site.  In 2020 the International Mars Society bravely requested and published our full paper, but I expressed concern about limiting our findings to what rapidly expanding proofs David and I had at the time. So we agreed to publish at least one annually updated report. The first such update is the PDF here. The Abstract for it is as follows:

ABSTRACT: We present evidence that NASA is seriously understating Martian air pressure. Our 12-year study critiques 3,025 Sols up through 8 February 2021 (8.51 terrestrial years, 4.52 Martian years) of highly problematic MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) weather data, and offers an in depth audit of over 8,311 hourly Viking 1 and 2 weather reports. We discuss analysis of technical papers, NASA documents, and personal interviews of transducer designers. We troubleshoot pressures based on radio occultation/spectroscopy, and the previously accepted small pressure ranges that could be measured by Viking 1 and 2 (18 mbar), Pathfinder and Phoenix (12 mbar), and MSL (11.5 mbar – altered to 14 mbar in 2017). For MSL there were several pressures published from August 30 to September 5, 2012 that were from 737 mbar to 747 mbar – two orders of magnitude high – only to be retracted. We challenged many pressures and NASA revised them down. However there are two pressure sensors ranges listed on a CAD for Mars Pathfinder. We long thought the CAD listed two different sensors, but based on specifications of a new Tavis sensor for InSight that is like that on PathFinder, it appears that the transducer could toggle between two pressures ranges: 0-0.174 PSIA/12 mbar (Tavis Dash 2) and 0-15 PSIA/1,034 mbar (Tavis Dash 1). Further, an Abstract to the American Geophysical Union for the Fall 2012 meeting, shows the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) states of their MSL (and Phoenix) Vaisala transducers, “The pressure device measurement range is 0 – 1025 hPa in temperature range of -45°C - +55°C (-45°C is warmer than MSL night temperatures), but its calibration is optimized for the Martian pressure range of 4 – 12 hPa.” So in fact of the first five landers with meteorological suites, three were actually equipped to measure Earth-like pressure.

All original 19 low µV values were removed when we asked about them, although eventually 12 were restored. REMS always-sunny opacity reports were contradicted by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter photos. We demonstrate that REMS weather data was regularly revised after they studied online critiques in working versions of this report. REMS even labelled all dust 2018 Global Dust Storm weather as sunny, although they did list the µV values then as all low. Vikings and MSL showed consistent timing of daily pressure spikes which we link to how gas pressure in a sealed container would vary with Absolute temperature, to heating by radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), and to dust clots at air access tubes and dust filters. Pathfinder, Phoenix and MSL wind measurements failed. Phoenix and MSL pressure transducer design problems included confusion about dust filter location, and lack of information about nearby heat sources due to International Traffic and Arms Regulations (ITAR). NASA Ames could not replicate dust devils at 10 mbar. Rapidly filled MER Spirit tracks required wind speeds of 80 mph at the assumed low pressures. These winds were never recorded on Mars. Nor could NASA explain drifting Barchan sand dunes. Based on the above and dust devils on Arsia Mons to altitudes of 17 km above areoid (Martian equivalent of sea level), spiral storms with 10 km eye-walls above Arsia Mons and similar storms above Olympus Mons (over 21 km high), dust storm opacity at MER Opportunity blacking out the sun, snow that descends 1 to 2 km in only 5 or 10 minutes, excessive aero braking, liquid water running at or near the surface in numerous locations at Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) and stratus clouds 13 km above areoid, we argue for an average pressure at areoid of ~511 mbar rather than the accepted 6.1 mbar. This pressure grows to 1,050 mbar in the Hellas Basin.

       The Table of Contents to the full Report is as follows:

                                         TABLE OF CONTENTS                              

Table of Contents…………………………………………………………..

iii

List of Illustrations…................................................................................

iv

ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………

1

1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………..........................

2

   1.1 Comparison of Martian and terrestrial dust devils……………..………………………

5

     1.1.1 Geographic Occurrences and the Greenhouse and Thermophoresis Effect………

5

     1.1.2 Seasonal Occurrences and Electrical Properties………………….……………… 

6

     1.1.3. Size and Shape …………………………………………………………………………..

6

     1.1.4. Diurnal Formation Rate and Lifetime………………………………………………..

6

     1.1.5 Wind Speeds……………………………………………………………………………..

4

     1.1.6 Core Temperature Excursions…………………………………………………………

6

     1.1.7 Dust Particle Size – The Problem of Martian Dust <2 Microns and Wind Speeds.

6

     1.1.8. Core Pressure Excursions……………………………………………………………… 

7

  1.2.  NASA Ames Test of Martian Pressures and Dust Devils ……………………………

10

2. OVERVIEW OF PRESSURE INSTRUMENTATION PROBLEMS…...................

   11

   2.1 Viking 2 and Gay-Lussac’s Law………………………………………………………….

13

   2.2 Pathfinder and Phoenix Pressure Issues………………………………………….

18

   2.3. Which Transducers Were Used?…………………………………………………

21

   2.4. Issues Raised by the FMI

23

2.5. DID ANY TAVIS OR VAISALA TRANSDUCERS PEG OUT AT THEIR MAXIMUM PRESSURES?.....................................................................................................

27

    2.5.1 How extraordinary was the (temporary) 1,149 Pa pressure spike of MSL Sol 370?

27

     2.5.2. The importance of gleaning data from identification of our web site readers.

28

    2.5.3 Why is it so wrong to alter data to fit an expected curve? 

35

   2.6 The Dust filter on Viking…………………………………………………………..

40

      2.6.1. The issue of Viking pressure reports and digitization…………………………………

40

     2.6.2. The issue of daily pressure spikes at consistent time-bins.

40

2.7. MSL Weather Reporting Fiasco

46

3. CAVES ON AND SPIRAL CLOUDS ABOVE ARSIA MONS AND OLYMPUS MONS ON MARS.

49

4. THE ISSUES OF SNOW, WATER ICE, AND CARBON DIOXIDE ON MARS.

51

   4.1. Annual Pressure Fluctuations Recorded by Viking 1, Viking 2, and Phoenix -   Maximum Pressure in the Northern Winter?.....................................................................

51

4.1.1. Ls of minimum pressure………………………………………………………

52

4.1.2. Ls of maximum pressure…………………………………………………………………..

52

5. RADIO OCCULTATION…………………………………………………………….

65

5.1 Shifting Standards – The Relationship of the MOLA Topography of Mars to the Mean Atmospheric Pressure.  

67

6.  SPECTROSCOPY PRESSURE READINGS BY MARS EXPRESS ORBITER.

71

7.  MARTIAN WIND PROBLEMS…..............................................................................

72

   7.1 Anemometer/Telltale Wind Speed Issues…………………………………………………

73

   7.2 Martian Bedforms – Too Much Movement of Sand Dunes and Ripples for 6.1 mbar

74

   7.2.1 Issues Raised by the paper on Planet-wide sand motion on Mars by Bridges et al. (2012)

75

8. DO DOWNRANGE LANDINGS MEAN THINNER OR THICKER AIR?...........

81

9. DUST OPACITY AND PRESSURE…......................................................................

85

10. EXCESSIVE DECELERATION DURING AEROBRAKING OPERATIONS

92

   10.1 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS)……………………………………………………………

92

   10.2 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)…………………………………………… 

93

11. THE GLOBAL DUST STORM OF 2018

94

   11.1 Pressures Claimed for the 2018 Global Dust Storm

97

   11.2 Brief Summary of 2018 Dust Storm Data

108

   11.3 Possibility of a Biological Factor in Lifting Dust

108

   11.3.1 Martian Dust Storm Seasons

109

   11.4 Martian Dust Storm Paths and Radioactive Areas

109

12. MARS PATHFINDER PRESSURES

111

13. THE POTENTIAL PRESSURE ON MARS………………………………………

113

   13.1 Did NASA ever publicly back 20 mbar on Mars?

113

   13.2 Biology, Methane, and a Possible Hint of the Real Martian Air Pressure…....................

114

   13.3 Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL), Perchlorates and Running Water on Mars…...........

118

     13.3.1 Length of daylight where RSL are found………………………………………………..

118

     13.3.2 Latitudes, times and temperatures for evidence of running water………………….

120

     13.3.3 The role of perchlorates in RSL…………………………………………………………

121

    13.3.3.1. RSL: Could they be sand rather than water?.....................................................

121

    13.4 Other Water on Mars – the Frozen Sea at Utopia Planitia

124

   13.5 The High End of Pressure Estimates for Mars…......................................................

127

   13.6. Pressure Drop as MSL Climbs Mt. Sharp vs. Scale Height Predictions.

131

14. RELATIVE HUMIDITY

140

15. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT CONCERNS

145

    15.1. Ground Temperature Problems

152

    15.2. Winter Ground Temperatures above freezing in MSL Year 2

152

    15.3. Why the early winter ground temperatures are so important and possible life seen on Sol 1185

152

     15.3.1 Evidence of Life on Mars.

154

    15.4. MSL Air and Ground Temperature Differences.

158

        15.4.1. Oxygen Solubility in near-surface Martian environments and aerobic life.

160

    15.5. MSL Diurnal Temperature Variations………………..

161

       15.5.1. Why does the temperature fall more degrees at MSL in summer nights than winter nights?

166

   15.6. Probable Failure of the Ground Temperature Sensor or Personnel Issues?

167

      15.6.1 Failure of the Temperature Sensor.

173

      15.6.2 Personnel Issues.

173

      15.6.3 Mixed messages about the range and sensitivity of pressure sensors sent to Mars.

175

      15.6.4. A Possible Excuse for REMS Errors.

181

    15.7 Temperature, Pressure and Albedo

182

16. ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION AND CLOUD COVER AT MSL.

186

16.1 Solar Longitude for sols at MSL with very high and low ultraviolet radiation.

188

17. CRASH OF THE EXOMARS 2016 SCHIAPARELLI LANDER

197

      17.1 ESA gets smarter – Raises ExoMars orbit due to excessive density of Mars’s atmosphere

200

18. SUMMARY OF CRITICAL OBSERVATIONS………………………………………

201

18.1.  Dust Devils

202

18.2 Accuracy of instrument descriptions

202

18.3 Data management

202

18.4 The crash of the ExoMars 2016

202

18.5 During Viking 1 and 2 Year 1, pressures varied closely with Gay-Lussac/ Amonton’s Law-based predictions for a gas trapped in a closed container

202

18.6 Data digitization Issues and stuck pressure readings

203

18.7 Pressure readings affected by heat generating internal events

203

18.8 Inconsistent reports about the maximum pressures measurements possible with FMI transducers

204

18.9 Timing of pressure spikes

204

18.10. Annex F and how the time of day affects the accuracy of pressure prediction

204

18.11. Mariner Pressure Results

204

18.12. Landing Pressure Capabilities

204

18.13. Deliberate use of flawed sensors

204

18.14. Innocent Mistakes?

205

18.15. Effects of Dust storms

206

18.16. Altitude and pressure changes seen

207

18.17. Effects on Aerobraking

207

18.18. Diurnal pressure fluctuation

207

18.19. Organic chemicals found on Mars

207

18.20. Evidence for life on Mars

207

18.21. Problems with transducer design and testing

208

18.22. Failure to replicate dust devils

208

18.23. Sand movement not possible at NASA’s claimed Martian air pressure

208

18.24. Lower than expected ultraviolet radiation

208

18.25. Stratus clouds at high altitudes

208

18.26. The real pressure on Mars?

208

19. RECOMMENDATIONS…............................................................................................

209

20. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…….................................................................................

210

AFTERWORD: What difference could this all possibly make? ………………

212

21. REFERENCES…...............................................................................................................

217

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE BASIC REPORT

FIGURE

TOPIC

PAGE

1

Arsia Mons dust devils

5

2

Utah dust devil pressure drop

7

3

Pressure drops at Phoenix and Pathfinder

8

4

Relative magnitude of 0.62 mbar increase in pressure for Viking 1 at its sol 332.3 and pressure drops or 79 convective vortices/dust devils at Mars pathfinder

9

5A

First photo from the surface of Mars and dust kicked up

12

5B

Rocks on the deck of the MSL Curiosity

12

6

Pressure calculator with Gay-Lussac Pressure Law and Viking 2 results.

14

7

Prediction success totals per time-bin and corresponding % of successful predictions.

15

8

Sample of Annex F – Viking 1 daily pressure predictions & measurements with cyclic accuracies for pressure predictions

16

9A-9C

Relationship of temperature changes to pressure changes on Viking 2

17

10A

Tavis Viking CAD Diagram 10011

19

10B

Tavis Pathfinder CAD Diagram 10484

19

10C

Three different Tavis transducers

21

10D

Tavis was used on both Pathfinder and Insight

22

11A

Vaisala 10484 pressure transducer on Phoenix and MSL

23

11B

Relative size of dust filters for Mars landers

24

12A

Pressure and Temperatures Recorded by Phoenix

25

12B

Except for Sol 370 the black MSL pressure curve is suspiciously too close to the Viking 2 curve above it and the Viking 1 curve below it. 

27

13

Quality control Individuals test.

28

14A

MSL sensor pegged out at max pressure

30

14B

MSL pressure sols 369-371

31

14C

The REMS team alters the critical MSL Sol 370 pressure data

32

14D

Ashima Research has not yet altered the critical MSL Sol 370 pressure data

32

14E

REMS also alters pressures for Sols 1160 and 1161.

33

14F

REMS again revises pressures for Sols 1300 and 1301.

34

14G

REMS alters temperature data too when it is off the curve.

35

15A

MSL REMS Block Diagram

36

15B

Real Mars Sky Color

36

16A

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 to .34 time-bins. Sols 1-116.

42

16B

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 134 -199.

42

16C

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 200-219.

42

16D

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 220-304

42

16E

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 305-334

43

16F

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 335-350

43

16G

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 156-175

43

16H

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 176-199.

43

16I

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 201-260.

44

16J

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 261-290.

44

16K

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 291- 305.

44

16L

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 306-361

44

17A

REMS Team data confusion

47

17B

Data day length and wind report changes from Ashima Research due to our efforts

47

18A-D

Inverse relationship between MSL pressures and temperatures

48

19

Caves on Arsia Mons

50

20

Spiral clouds over Arsia Mons and Olympus Mons

50

21A

1,177Pa and 1,200 Pa maximum pressures published

53

21B

Approximate display of how MSL pressure data fits in with VL-2, VL-1 and Phoenix data. 

54

22A

Ashima Research does not support exact minimum MSL pressures published by the REMS Team

55

22B

REMS plays games with the minimum pressure so far for MSL Year 3 on Sol 2002.

58

23

Pressure curve for MSL’s first 866 sols.

62

24

Radio Occultation Points on Mars with locations of Olympus Mons and Arsia Mons indicated

69

25

MOLA map of Mars with topographic features, landing sites, and methane plumes

70

26A

Mars Express OMEGA spectroscopy-derive surface pressures

71

26B

Four years of in situ pressures at Viking 1 lander site

71

27

Phoenix telltale waving in Martian wind

74

28

Wind speeds recorded at Viking 1 for its sols 1 to 116 and 134 to 350

77

29

Wind speeds recorded at Viking 2 for its sols 1 to 399

76

30

Erasure 8f Spirit’s tracks during the 2007 global dust storm

79

31

Dust Storms and pressures recorded at Vikings 1 and 2.

80

32

Reconstructed density for Spirit landing

82

33

Reconstructed density for  Opportunity entry

82

34

Reconstructed density for Phoenix entry

83

35

Dust storm in  Phoenix, Arizona

84

36

Sols 852 to 858 REMS vs. Malin

85

37

Opacity changes at Opportunity from sols 1205 to 1235.

91

38

VL1 pressure and opacity

92

39

Actual Dynamic Pressure – normalized to an altitude of 121 km

93

40

2019 Global Dust Storm Sols 2082 to 2090

95

41

2018 Global Dust Storm blacks out the sun at Opportunity

96

42

Two images from the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on NASA’s Curiosity rover depict the change in the color of light illuminating the Martian surface

97

43

The altitude from – July 26, 2016 to October 15, 2016 was somewhere between 4,400 meters in July to 4,360 meters below areoid.

98

44

Possible correlation between radioactive hot spots and dust storm origination on Mars?

110

45

Time-averaged surface pressures for 30 sols of Pathfinder

111

46

Diurnal pressure cycle for MSL Sol  10 and MPF Sols 9 and 10

112

47

History of beliefs about Martian Atmospheric Pressure

114

48

Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM)

115

49

Methane spikes seen by MSL at Gale Crater.

116

50A-I plus Plates 5 and 6

The Color of the Martian Sky

117

51

Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL)

119

52

Location of RSL on Mars

120

53

Projected surface and subsurface temperature to 10 cm depth at Melas Chasma

121

54

Relation between temperature, season & direction for RSL at Melas Chasma

121

55

Spectroscopy, RSL & perchlorates/Perchlorates and boiling point on Mars

123

56

Map of Utopia Planitia where a water ice sea was found on Mars

125

57

Pressure predictions based on stratus clouds 16 km over Mars Pathfinder

130

58

Gale Crater topographic map

133

59

Comparison of scale heights in The Martian Climate Revisited and on a NASA web site.

136

60

Comparison of pressure readings by Viking 1, Viking 2, Mars Phoenix, and MSL

139

61

Relative humidity is missing from REMS weather reports

141

62

Relative humidity claims for Gale crater

142

63

Relative humidity in the blast zone, arriving at Rocknest, leaving Rocknest and at Glenelg in Gale Crater.

  140

64

The REMS Team drops above freezing temperatures to below freezing

144

65

Huge uncertainty of MSL ground temperatures

145

66

MSL temperature sensor range

145

67

MSL ground temperature sensor

148

68

Mars Science Laboratory high air and ground temperatures for 3+ Martian years.

149

69

Mars Science Laboratory low air and ground temperatures for 3+ Martian years.

150

70

Unaveraged periodic temperature data from Mars Pathfinder (0.25 meters to 1 meter height)

151

71

The green spherical and cocoon-like objects seen on sols 1185 and 1189. The green spheres might be photosynthetic life.

153

72A

The putative ooids found in the same area as the spheres shown on Figure 57A might be simply smaller versions of the same phenonena.

155

72B

Figure 72B: Likely growth and reproduction of life on Mars. From R Gabriel Joseph el al, 2019.

155

73

Elevations and ground temperatures encountered while MSL was at positions noted by JPL. Possible life was seen on Sol 1185, along with a warmer than expected high ground temperature. The position noted for MSL for Sol 1248 is a return to within 20 meters of where the potential life was seen before. Then it moved within about 10 meters of the site.

156

74

Some of the unusually warm ground temperatures including five above freezing seen early in MSL Year 2 Winter.

157

75A

Diurnal drop in high temperatures from the ground up to 1.5 meters above ground level at MSL

158

75B

Graph of temperature drops at MSL for its summer (Year 2) and Winter (Year 2 to 3)

158

76

Location of meteorological sensors on Booms 1 and 2 of MSL.

161

77

While low air temperatures for sols 1670 and 1671 were both -76° C, the ground temperature lows differed by 30° C.

165

78

Sols 1720 to 1721 – Record low of -136° C.

165

79

Results from Spectroscopy when matching RSL with perchlorates

166

80

MSL Sols 1717 to 1721 topography with altitudes below areoid with low air and ground temperatures posted by the REMS Team.

168

81

JPL identified positions and MOLA altitudes for sols 1639 to 1671.  Low air and ground temperatures were added based on REMS Team weather reports.

169

82

 JPL published the positions for MSL Sols 1635, 1636, 1639, 1642, 1643, 1645, 1646, 1648 and 1649. During these dates low ground temperatures varied between -79° and -93° C. However, the dates that they did not show had ground temperature lows that varied from -80° and -111° C with five temperatures colder than -101° C, the coldest temperature ever observed by MSL.

170

83

Alteration of REMS Team report for Sol 1605 after we questioned it.

It is quite apparent that before March, 2017 reports that vary too  much from the preceding day or previous Martian year at the same Ls do not survive long at the REMS site at  http://cab.inta-csic.es/rems/en

  174

84

Viking 1 and Viking 2 error in unit conversion

176

85

The REMS Team would not permit low temperatures warmer than -50°  C.

178

86

Print-screen (recorded on July 23, 2017) of the FMI Abstract entitled Pressure and Humidity Measurements at the MSL Landing Site Supported by Modeling of the Atmospheric Conditions.

  179

87

The Vaisla Pressure sensor and its range as depicted by Spaceflight101.com. (1150 Pa top pressure)

180

88

REMS puts out a new maximum pressure for MSL. This time it’s 1400 Pa (14 mbar).

181

89

Maximum temperature calculated according to Boltzman’s Law with TES measurements from the equator to -10° latitude (10° South latitude)

 

 

182

90

Combining day and night infrared shooting, I have obtained this map in false colors where red spots area areas that tend to warm up more quickly during the day, while green resembles areas that tend to retain more warmth overnight, everything else is shown in blue.

184

91

Ls of Mars when MSL was experiencing low UV or very high UV.

189

92

Initial low UV values reported by the REMS Team and how the reports were altered. All low UV values between Sol 608 (April 22, 2014) and Sol 1200 on December 22, 2015 were obliterated by February 22, 2016.

191

93

After the REMS Team (a) dropped all UV values and (b) read our concerns about their behavior they changed at least 12 sols back to low UV. See Figure 77B for the rest of such changes.

192

94

After the REMS Team (a) dropped all UV values and (b) read our concerns about their behavior they changed at least 12 sols back to low UV. Figure 77B shows such changes that were not documented on Figure 77A

   193

95

Not all changes away from low UV were restored. As of October 12, 2017 no such restoration has made yet for Sol 1006.

194

96

Sunny skies advertised for MSL Sols 82 to 88 were not backed by the MSSS MARCI images

196

97

ESA gets smarter – Raises ExoMars orbit due to excessive density of Mars’s atmosphere

201

98

Changes in sky color and opacity due to the dust storm at MSL between May and June 2018.

206

 

TABLES IN THE BASIC REPORT

TABLE

TOPIC

PAGE

1

Pressures revised by JPL/MSL after we highlighted them

10-11

2

Pressure at various elevations on Mars based on a scale height of 10.8 and a pressure at Mars Areoid of 6.1 mbar. 

10

3

Viking 1 cyclic accuracies for pressure predictions.

14

4A

Sample of how the Roffman team tracks weather data published by the REMS Team/JPL

38

4B

Links to 5 Martian years of weather data

39

4C

Digitization limitations and the specific pressures reported by VL-2 for its first summer on Mars

41

5

Viking 1 Time-bin pressure and temperature change studies

45

6

Viking 2 Time-bin pressure and temperature change studies               

46

7

Pressures @ LS 90 and minimum pressures seen by VL-1, VL-2 and MS8

56

8

Landers and expected pressures based on landing altitude

58

9

Comparison of Viking 1 and Viking 2 Pressures for Ls 270

60

10

Variations in day length at Ls 70 South

61

11

Comparison of Martian Pressures via Radio Occultation & Calculated Scale Height Calculations

65

12

Six attempts by Mariners 4, 6 and 7 to measure pressure by radio occultation.

67

13

Profile of the windiest Viking day on Mars

76

14

Extracts of the MSSS reports that mention cloudy or dusty weather at the Curiosity Rover in Gale Crater, Mars, and weather in equatorial regions where Curiosity is found.  

86-90

15A

MSL Sols, Ls and Altitude in Meters Below Areoid

99

15B

REMS weather data for the 2018 Global Dust Storm

101-107

15C

Length of Sols on Mars at key solar longitudes related to dust storms

109

16

Calculation For Pressure At Utopia Planitia (Based on 6.1 mbar at areoid)

 

124

17

Pressure and altitudes for MSL Years 2 and 3 between Ls 11 and 19

132

18A

Pressure calculations for altitudes discussed above using a scale height of 10.8 km

134

18B

Pressure calculations for altitudes discussed above using a scale height of 11.1 km

135

19

Pressures over 925 Pa revised by JPL/REMS after we highlighted them or published them in earlier version of our Report

137

20

MSL temperatures altered by the REMS Team in July, 2013

143

21

Usually warm ground temperatures early in the winter of MSL year 2

151

22

Coldest air and ground temperatures for the first 29 Martian months of MSL operations on mars

163

23

MSL maximum and minimum air and ground temperatures Sols 1634 to 1684

171-173

24

Initial ultraviolet radiation reported through 1,256 sols at MSL. 

186

25

UV radiation reported up to Sol 1,338 after the REMS Team dropped all 19 original low UV values and then restored 12 of them.

187

26

UV for 2,007 MSL sols

188

27

Weather at MSL for Sols 2080 to 2097 during the  2018 Global Dust Storm

199-200

 

ANNEXES (with links) AND APPENDICES

 

SECTION

TOPIC

PAGE

Annex Abstract

Overview of data in the Annexes

A-1

ANNEX A

VIKING 1 MORNING PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE CHANGES and Mars Time-Bin Clock.

http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20A%203%20SEP%202013.pdf

A-2 to

A-59

ANNEX A Appendix 1

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 to .34 time-bins. Sols 1-116.

http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20A%203%20SEP%202013.pdf

A-3 to A-22

Appendix 2

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 134-199.

A-23 to

A-34

Appendix 3

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 200-219.

A-35 to A-38

Appendix 4

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 220-304

A-39 to    A-50

Appendix 5

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 305-334

A-51 to    A-55

Appendix 6

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 335-350

A-56 to    A-59

ANNEX B

VIKING 2 MORNING PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE CHANGES

http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20B%209%20September%202013.pdf

B-1 to B-39

Appendix 1

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 156-175

B-2 to B-5

Appendix 2

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 176-199.

B-6 to B-10

Appendix 3

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 201-260.

B-11 to     B-20

 

Appendix 4

 

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 261-290.

B-21 to     B-26

Appendix 5

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 291-305.

B-27 to     B-30

Appendix 6

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 306-361

B-31 to     B-39

ANNEX C

VIKING 2 STUCK PRESSURE GAUGE

http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20C%209%20September%202013.pdf

C-1 to C-54

ANNEX D

PERCENT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEASURED PRESSURES ON VIKING AND GAY-LUSSAC/ AMONTON’S LAW-BASED PREDICTIONS

http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20D%20%209%20September%202013.pdf

D-1 to D-171

Appendix 1

Viking 1 Sols 1 to 199

D-3 to D-94

Appendix 2

Viking 1 Sols 200 to 350

D-95 to    D-171

ANNEX E

Measured vs. Predicted Pressure Percent Differences for Viking-1 Time-bins 0.3 and 0.34 http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20E%209%20September%202013.pdf

E-1 to E-14

ANNEX F

Percent Difference Experimental Summary

http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20F%20%2010%20SEP%202013.pdf

F-1 to F-18

Appendix 1

Percent Difference Flow Chart for Viking 1 Sols 1 to 116 & 200 to 350

F-5 to F-16

Appendix 2

Histogram with temperatures at successful predictions per time-bins

F-17 to     F-18

ANNEX G

Tavis Transducer Specifications and Test Results

http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20G%2010%20September%202013.pdf

G-1 to G-13

 

ANNEX H

Calibration Effort for the Mars Pathfinder Tavis Pressure Transducer and IMP Windsock Experiment

http://davidaroffman.com/Annex%20H%20%209%20September%202013.pdf

H-1 to H-43

ANNEX I

Pressures Reported by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS).

http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20I%2011%20JUN%202013.pdf

I-1 to I-28

Appendix 1

Print Screen Record of Original REMS Team and Ashima Research MSL Weather Reports

I-12 to I-28

ANNEX J

Concessions by Ashima Research and How to Correctly Calculate Daylight Hours for MSL

http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20J%20%209%20September%202013.pdf

J- 1to J-19

ANNEX K

REMS Team and Ashima Research Weather Reports from Sol 15 to Sol 299.

http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20K%209%20September%202013.pdf

K-1 to K-34

ANNEX L

How Martian Day Length  Varies with Ls and Latitude

http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20L%20July%2014%202014.pdf

L-1 to L-10

ANNEX M

One Year of MSL Weather Reports http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20M%20of%20All%20NASA%20Mars%20Weather%20Data%20Revised%20Aug%2027%202015%20to%20Critiqu.pdf

M-1 to M-38

 

ANNEX N

Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 Ls 151 to Ls 270 (late winter to end of spring), Sols 670 to 864  http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20N.pdf

N-1 to N-13

ANNEX O

Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 Ls 270 to Ls 0  (summer), Sols 865 to 1,020 http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20O.pdf

O-1 to O-11

ANNEX P

Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 Ls 0 to Ls 90  (autumn), Sols 1019 to 1,213 http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20P.pdf

P-1 to P-15

ANNEX Q

Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 to 3 Winter, Ls 90 to Ls 180 (Sols 1,213 to 1,392) http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20Q.pdf

Q-1 to Q-18

ANNEX R

Weather Reports for MSL Year 3 Spring, Ls 180 to Ls 270 (Sols 1,392 to 1,534

http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20R%20REVISED.pdf

R-1 to R-37

ANNEX S

Source: Document: Two Martian Years of MSL High Air and Ground Temperatures. http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20S.pdf

S-1 to S41

ANNEX T

Source Document: Two Martian Years of MSL Low Air and Ground Temperatures. http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20T%20TO.pdf

T-1 to T-64

ANNEX U

Comparison of Ultraviolet Radiation and Pressures at Gale Crater, Mars for MSL Years 1 and 2

http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20U.pdf

U-1 to U-28

ANNEX V

Weather Reports for MSL Year 3 Summer, Ls 270 to Ls 0 (Sols 1,534 to 1,686. http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20V.pdf

V-1 to V-28

ANNEX W

Weather Reports for MSL Year 3 Fall, Ls 0 to 90 (Sols 1,687 to 1,881

http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20W.pdf

W -1 to W-24

ANNEX X

Weather Reports for MSL Year 3-4 Winter, Ls 90 to 180 (Sols 1,881to 2060

http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20X.pdf

X-1 to X-31

ANNEX Y

Weather Reports for MSL Year 4 Spring, 180 to 270  (Sols to 2060 to 2204) http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20Y.pdf

Y-1 to

Y-19

ANNEX Z

Weather Reports for MSL Year 4 Summer, 270 to 0  (Sols to 2203 to 2357) http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20Z.pdf

Z-1 to Z-19

ANNEX AA

Weather Reports for MSL Year 4 Fall, Ls 0 to 90 (Sols 2357 to 2550)

http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20AA.pdf

AA-1 to AA-21

ANNEX BB

Weather Reports for MSL Year 4-5 Winter, Ls 90 to 180 (Sols 2,550 to 2728

http://davidaroffman.com/Annex%20%20BB.pdf

 

BB-1 to BB-26

ANNEX CC

Weather Reports for MSL Year 5 Spring, Ls 180 to 270 (Sols 2729 to 2871)

http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20CC.pdf

 

 

CC-1 to CC-16

ANNEX DD

Weather Reports for MSL Year 5 Summer, 270 to 0  (Sols to 2871 to 3025

http://davidaroffman.com/ANNEX%20DD.pdf

 

DD-1 to DD-19

 

 

 

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX A

 

FIGURE

TOPIC

PAGE

1

Martian Time-Bin Clock

A-2

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX F

FIGURE

TOPIC

PAGE

1

Prediction success totals per time-bin.

F-1

2

% Differences between measured & predicted pressures as a function of time

F-2

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX G

FIGURE

TOPIC

PAGE

1

Tavis pressure sensors tested according to the Alvin Seiff papers

G-1

2

Tavis Viking CAD Diagram 10011

G-2

3

NASA Report No. TM X-74020 (Mitchell Report: Tavis Transducer Tests)

G-3

4

Photo of the Tavis P-4 pressure sensor

G-4

5

Transducer Selection Slide by Professor James E. Tillman

G-6

6

Tavis Pathfinder CAD Diagram 10484

G-7

7

Design diagrams for Tavis transducers (Models P-1, P-2, P-4, P-5, P-6, P-7 and P-8)

G-8

 

8

P-4 Transducers (S/N 1583 and S/N 1591) used for test of Viking pressures sensors after the launch of the two Vikings.

G-9

9

Relative sizes of dust filters used for Tavis and Vaisala transducers.

G-9

10

Table of Characteristics of Tavis transducers (Models P-1, P-2, P-4, P-5, P-6, P-7 & P-8)

G-10

11

Tavis Transducer purchasing information

G-11

12

Temperature Malfunction During (Viking) Cruise Environment

G-13

 

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX I

FIGURE

TOPIC

PAGE

1

Pressure data for MSL Sols 10.5 to 13

I-1

2

MSL temperature data for Sols 10 to 11.5

I-1

3A

REMS Team and Ashima Research coverage of weather at MSL back in August, 2012, and how Ashima was forced to alter their reports on May 11, 2013.

I-2

3B

REMS Team coverage of weather at MSL back in August, 2012, and how their data was revised again on July 3, 2013.

I-3

4

REMS Weather Booms on MSL

I-5

5

Close up of MSL Weather Booms

I-5

6a to 6d

Temperature and pressure were inversely related for the MSL

I-8

7

Combined VL-1, VL-2, Phoenix and MSL Pressure Curves to MSL at Ls 10

I-9

8

MSL pressure graph Ls 158.8 to 199.9

I-10

6

REMS team and Ashima Research reporting problems

I-12

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX J

 

1

Position of Mars at the start of each of its 12 months.

J-4

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX L

 

1

Changing Martian weather data from the REMS Team.

L-2

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX M

 

1

Pressure changes reported for Sol 370.

M-7

2

Pressure changes for Sols 29 and 30

M-38

3

Who is ordering REMS reports temperature changes?

M-40

4

Weather sensors on MSL Curiosity

M-41

5

VL1-, VL-2, Phoenix and MSL pressure curves

M-43

 

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX N

 

1

MSL pressure data up through its Sol 866, Ls 270 – start of the second summer at MSL

N-2

 

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX O

 

1

MSL pressure data up to Ls 270, start of the second summer

O-1

2

MSL Sol 880 data changes after we highlighted problems

O-9

3

MSL Sol 1006 data changes after we highlighted problems

O-10

4

Mistakes and significant data alterations early on cast real doubt on the accuracy or honesty of MSL weather data.   

O-11

 

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX P

 

1

JPL makes changes to Sol 1,119 data that we predicted

P-12

2

MSL Sol 1145 data changes after we highlighted problems

P-13

3

MSL Sol 1160 and 1161 pressures that are record highs and above the 1,150 Pa limit of the Vaisala pressure sensor

P-14

 

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX S

 

1

Range of high air and ground temperatures through MSL Years 1 and 2.

S-1

2

REMS weather reports published for MSL Sols 1234 to 1241. Note all the ground temperature highs above 0 degrees Celsius and the incredibly low ground temperature at night – down to -100 degrees Celsius on Sol 1241.

S-2

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX U

 

1

UV at MSL in Gale Crater, Mars up through its sol 1021 and the beginning of its second autumn on Mars. The REMS Team/JPL dropped all low values by February, 2016

U-2

2A

The color for UV used on REMS reports.

 

U-20

2B

Dose rate at MSL in micrograys per day related to UV levels published on the REMS reports (see Table 3) for ~300 sols

 

U-20

3A to 3F

Relative positions of Mars and Earth when Low Ultraviolet radiations was originally reported by REMS on Mars.

U-23

4

Stratus clouds seen 1 hours 40 minutes before sunrise at Mars Pathfinder. If the atmosphere there is as thin as NASA claims it is doubtful that there would be light so far before sunrise.

U-24

5

Opportunity turned its rover eyes skyward to observe clouds drifting overhead that look like cirrus clouds on Earth.

 

U-26

6

Solar longitude (Ls) for Mars when MSL Curiosity originally measured very high UV or low UV. Again, after they read this article, they dropped all the low UV values.

U-27

7

UV, Latitude and Altitude

U-28

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX V

 

1

Sol 1553 to 1554 temperature and pressure anomalies and JPL fix after we highlighted the problem with Sol 1554 pressure and max temperatures.

V-23

2

REMS report for Sol 1575.

V-23

3

Figure 3 – The 35 Pa pressure drop and warm low temperatures on Sol 1605 was altered as predicted

V-24

4

Figure 4 – As predicted, odd data for Sol 1610 was altered – in this case totally deleted

V-25

5

Figure 5 – The ground temperature drop for Sol 1640 was not revised. This marked the beginning of strangely cold temperatures that went unchanged.

V-26

6

Figure 6 – Insane variation in night air to ground temperatures between MSL Sols 1643 and 1650

V-27

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX Z

 

1

Original and revised REMS data for MSL Sols 1998 to 2002.

Z-16

2

Sol 2264 weather data seems out of line due to radical changes in temperature, pressure, and UV.

Z-17

3

Puffballs or Hematite? These spheres were seen on Sol 2357.

Z-18

4

Trek map for MSL Curiosity with note on when spheres were seen.

Z-19

 

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX CC

 

1

Weather data revised for Weather data revised for Sol 2747.

C-16

 

 

LIST OF TABLES IN ANNEX U

 

1

UV values for MSL Years 1 and 2 before and after JPL dropped all low UV values

U-1

2

Solar Longitude, Pressures and Ultraviolet Radiation for MSL During its First Two Martian Years.

U-3 to

U-19

3

The relationships (if any) of solar longitude (Ls), lander altitude, lander latitude, day light hours each sol and UV recorded.

U-21

4

15 Sols with low ultraviolet radiation at Gale Crater Mars and the corresponding UV for these dates in Las Vegas, Nevada BEFORE the REMS Team and JPL dropped all low pressure data.

U-24

 

LIST OF TABLES IN ANNEX X

 

1

Before and after print-screens showing weather that NASA published for sols 2223 and 2228 that we challenged and got NASA to change.

X-29

2

Altitudes around minimum pressure for MSL Year 3

X-30

3

Sol 2043 revised UV

X-31